Matthew S. Cain, Ph.D.



Matthew S. Cain head shot Current Positions:
Research Psychologist on the Cognitive Science & Applications Team
U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Soldier Center

Visiting Researcher at the Tufts University Center for Applied Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Previous Positions:
Postdoc in the Visual Attention Lab
Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

Postdoc in the Laboratory for Cognitive & Perceptual Learning
Brown University Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, & Psychological Sciences

Postdoc in the Duke Visual Cognition Lab
Duke University Center for Cognitive Neuroscience

Graduate student in the Shimamura Lab
University of California, Berkeley Psychology Department
Professional sites:
ORCiD
Google Scholar
LinkedIn

Research

I'm a cognitive scientist interested in understanding how people use their attention, memory, and other mental capacities to solve real-world tasks. This has manifested in studying how Soldiers solve tasks in the laboratory, in virtual reality, and in the field, how people (including airport baggage screeners) search for more than one thing at once, and how people adjust their performance moment to moment as context shifts. I have also explored how individual differences affect performance, both trait-level differences like working memory capacity and experience-level differences such as different quantities of media multitasking and video game playing. I am now working with interface designers to take context-informed attention and memory limitations into account when developing new technological solutions.


Papers

Schill, H. M., Cain, M. S., Josephs, E. L., & Wolfe, J. M. (in press). Axis-of-Rotation as a Basic Feature in Visual Search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics.


Wolfe, J. M., Cain, M. S., & Aizenman, A. M. (2019). Guidance and selection history in hybrid foraging visual search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81(3), 637–653.


Wolfe, J. M., Cain, M. S., & Alaoui-Socé, A. (2018). Hybrid value foraging: How the value of targets shapes human foraging behavior. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80(3), 609–621.

Biggs, A. T., Seech, T. R., Cain, M. S., & Thompson, A. G. (2018). Introducing the Combat Readiness Profile. Marine Corps Gazette, 102(5), 80–83. [not peer-reviewed]

Kang, D.-W., Kim, D., Chang, L.-H., Kim, Y.-H., Takahashi, E., Cain, M. S., Watanabe, T., & Sasaki, Y. (2018). Structural and Functional Connectivity Changes Beyond Visual Cortex in a Later Phase of Visual Perceptual Learning. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 5186.


Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2017). An individual differences approach to multiple-target visual search errors: How search errors relate to different characteristics of attention. Vision Research, 141, 258–265.

Brunye, T. T., Eddy, M. D., Cain, M. S., Hepfinger, L. B., & Rock, K. (2017). Masked priming for the comparative evaluation of camouflage conspicuity. Applied Ergonomics, 62, 259–267.


Cain, M. S., Leonard, J. A., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Finn, A. S. (2016). Media multitasking in adolescence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6), 1932–1941. [PDF]

Wolfe, J. M., Aizenman, A. M., Boettcher, S. E. P., & Cain, M. S. (2016). Hybrid Foraging Search: Searching for multiple instances of multiple types of targets. Vision Research, 119, 50–59.


Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2015). Targets need their own personal space: The effects of clutter on multiple-target search accuracy. Perception, 44(10), 1203–1214.

Mitroff, S. R., Biggs, A. T., & Cain, M. S. (2015). Multiple-Target Visual Search Errors: Overview and Implications for Airport Security. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2(1), 121–128. [PDF]

Biggs, A. T., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2015). Cognitive training can reduce civilian casualties in a simulated shooting environment. Psychological Science, 26(8), 1164–1176. [PDF]

Berard, A. V., Cain, M. S., Watanabe, T., & Sasaki, Y. (2015). Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference. PLoS ONE. 10(3), e0120011. [Open Access]


Cain, M. S., Biggs, A. T., Darling, E. F., & Mitroff, S. R. (2014). A little bit of history repeating: Splitting up multiple-target visual searches decreases second-target miss errors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 20(2), 112–125. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Prinzmetal, W., Shimamura, A. P., & Landau, A. N. (2014). Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players. Frontiers in Cognition, 5:69. [Open Access]

Clark, K., Cain, M. S., Adcock, R. A., & Mitroff, S. R. (2014). Context Matters: The structure of task goals affects accuracy in multiple-target visual search. Applied Ergonomics. 45(3), 528–533. [PDF]


Cain, M. S., Adamo, S. H., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013). A taxonomy of errors in multiple-target visual search. Visual Cognition. 21(7), 899–921. [PDF]

Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013). Self-Induced Attentional Blink: A Cause of Errors in Multiple-Target Search. Psychological Science. 24(12), 2569–2574

Cain, M. S. & Mitroff, S. R. (2013). Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 39(5), 1398–1408. [PDF]

Appelbaum, L. G., Cain, M. S., Darling, E. F., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 75(6), 1161–1167. [PDF]

Biggs, A. T., Cain, M. S., Clark, K., Darling, E. F., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013). Assessing visual search performance differences between Transportation Security Administration Officers and nonprofessional visual searchers. Visual Cognition. 21(3), 330–352. [PDF]


Cain, M. S., Vul, E., Clark, K., & Mitroff, S. R. (2012). A Bayesian optimal foraging model of human visual search. Psychological Science. 23(9), 1047–1054. [PDF]

Appelbaum, L. G., Cain, M. S., Schroeder, J. E., Darling, E. F., & Mitroff, S. R. (2012). Stroboscopic Visual Training Improves Information Encoding in Short-Term Memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74(8), 1681–1691. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Landau, A. N., & Shimamura, A. P. (2012). Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 74(4), 641–647. [PDF]

Appelbaum, L. G., Cain, M. S., Darling, E. F., Stanton, S. J., Nguyen, M. T., Mitroff, S. R. (2012). What is the identity of a sports spectator? Personality and Individual Differences. 52, 422–427. [PDF]


Cain, M. S. & Mitroff, S. R. (2011). Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception. 40(10), 1183–1192. [PDF]

Appelbaum, L. G., Schroeder, J. E., Cain, M. S., Mitroff, S. R. (2011). Improved visual cognition through stroboscopic training. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 276. [Open Access]

Cain, M. S., Dunsmoor, J. E., LaBar, K. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2011). Anticipatory anxiety hinders detection of a second target in dual-target search. Psychological Science, 22(7), 866–871. [PDF]


Moon, S. Y., Barton, J. J. S., Mikulski, S., Polli, F. E., Cain, M. S., Vangel, M., Hämäläinen, M. S., & Manoach, D. S. (2007). Where left becomes right: a magnetoencephalographic study of sensorimotor transformation for antisaccades. Neuroimage, 36, 1313–1323.

Manoach, D. S., Thakkar, K. N., Cain, M. S., Polli, F. E., Edelman, J. A., Fischl, B., & Barton, J. J. (2007). Neural activity is modulated by trial history: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of a previous antisaccade. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(7), 1791–1798.

Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J., Cain, M. S., Thakkar, K. N., Rauch, S. L., & Manoach, D. S. (2005). Rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex make dissociable contributions during antisaccade error commission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.,102(43), 15700–15705.

Manoach, D. S., Cain, M. S., Vangel, M. G., Khurana, A., Goff, D. C., & Stickgold, R. (2004). A failure of sleep-dependent procedural learning in chronic, medicated schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 56(12), 951–956.


Chapters

Clark, K., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2015). Perception and human information processing in visual search. In R. Hoffman, J. Szalma, P. Hancock, R. Parasuraman, & M. Scerbo (Eds.), Cambridge University Handbook on Applied Perception Research. Cambridge University Press.

Clark, K., Cain, M. S., Adamo, S. H., & Mitroff, S. R. (2012). Overcoming Hurdles in Translating Visual Search Research Between the Lab and the Field. In M. D. Dodd & J. H. Flowers (Eds.), The Influence of Attention, Learning, and Motivation on Visual Search (Vol. 59, pp. 147–181). New York: Springer.


Conference Papers

Cain, M. S., & Wendell, D. M., (April, 2019; Invited) Human perception and prediction of robot swarm motion. Proc. SPIE XXXXX, Defese + Commercial Sensing 2019. Baltimore, MD.

Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R., (March, 2018) Satisfaction at last: evidence for the `satisfaction' account for multiple-target search errors. Proc. SPIE 10577, Medical Imaging 2018: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, 105770A.

Salazar, E., Cain, M. S., Darling, E. F., Mitroff, S. R., & Carin, L. (2012, June). Inferring Latent Structure From Mixed Real and Categorical Relational Data. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Hubal, R., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2011, December). Simulating a vigilance task: Technology for valid homeland security research. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference. Orlando, FL.

Cain, M. S., Vul, E., Clark, K., & Mitroff, S. R. (2011, July). Optimal models of human multiple-target visual search. In L. Carlson, C. Hölscher, & T. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Boston, MA: Cognitive Science Society.

Hubal, R., Mitroff, S. R., Cain, M. S., Scott., B., & DeWitt, R. (2010, November). Simulating a vigilance task: Extensible technology for baggage security assessment and training. IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security. Waltham, MA.


Talks

Horner, C. A., Schroeder, J. E., Mitroff, S. R., & Cain, M. S. (2019, May). The effect of extended target concealment on motion extrapolation. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S. & Wendell D. M. (2019, April). Human Perception and Prediction of Robot Swarm Motion. SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing, Baltimore, MD.

Cain, M. S., Cain, S. S., & Wendell D. M. (2018, November). Perception of Ensemble Centers and Headings. Psychonomic Society, New Orleans, LA.

Cain, S. S. & Cain, M. S. (2018, May). Texture Statistics Are Sufficient For Ensemble Perception. Computational and Mathematical Models in Vision (MODVIS), St. Pete Beach, FL.

Schill, H., Wick, F. A., Cain, M. S., & Wolfe, J. M. (2018, May). Hybrid foraging meets navigation: Can augmented reality improve performance in real world search tasks? Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., & Drew, T. (2016, November). Evaluating the role of working memory in subsequent search miss errors during multiple-target visual search. Psychonomic Society, Boston, MA.

Cain, M. S., Leonard, J. A., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Finn, A. S. (2016, May). Media Multitasking in Adolescence. Individual Differences in Vision satellite event at the Vision Sciences Society meeting, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., & Wolfe, J. M. (2015, November). Switching Between Targets and Switching Between Trials in Hybrid Visual/Memory Search. Psychonomic Society, Chicago, IL.

Wolfe, J. M., Cain, M. S., Ehinger, K. A., & Drew, T. Guided Search 5.0: Meeting the challenge of hybrid search and multiple-target foraging. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., Boettcher, S. E. P., & Wolfe J. M. (2014, November). Hybrid Foraging Search: Visual Search for Multiple Examples of Multiple Target Types Held in Memory. To be presented at the Psychonomic Society annual meeting, Long Beach, CA.

Cain, M. S., Finn, A. S., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013, November). Cognitive, Personality, and Neuroimaging Correlates of Media Multitasking. Psychonomic Society annual meeting, Toronto, ON.

Appelbaum, L. G., Cain, M. S., Schroeder, J. E., Darling, E. F., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013, May). Improving visual cognition through stroboscopic training. Vision Sciences Society Meeting, Naples, FL.

Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2012, November). Self-Induced Attention Blink: A Cause of Errors in Multiple-Target Visual Search. Object, Perception, Attention, and Memory, Minneapolis, MN.

Salazar, E., Cain, M. S., Darling, E. F., Mitroff, S. R., & Carin, L. (2012, June). Inferring Latent Structure From Mixed Real and Categorical Relational Data. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Vul, E., Clark, K., & Mitroff, S.R. (2011, July). An optimal foraging model of human visual search. Cognitive Science Society, Boston, MA. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Vul, E., Clark, K., & Mitroff, S.R. (2010, November). Human search strategies are informed by complex target distribution statistics. Object Perception, Attention, and Memory, St. Louis, MO.

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2008). When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Practice-Induced Task Switching Costs. Bay Area Memory Meeting, Davis, CA.

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2008). When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Practice-Induced Task Switching Costs. Cognitive Science Association for Interdisciplinary Learning, Hood River, OR.

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2007). Distinct Sub-regions of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Subserve Different Types of Conflict. Berkeley-Stanford Talks, Stanford, CA.

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2006). Asymmetric Task Switching Effects in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Cognitive Science Association for Interdisciplinary Learning, Hood River, OR.

Shimamura, A.P. & Cain, M. S. (2005). Selecting Stimulus Features and Response Decisions: Behavioral and Neural Consequences of Multiple Inhibitory Control Processes. Cognitive Science Association for Interdisciplinary Learning, Hood River, OR.

Stickgold, R., Cain, M., Goff, D. C., & Manoach, D. S. (2003). Schizophrenic patients do not show sleep-dependent motor skill learning. Associated Professional Sleep Societies, Chicago, IL.


Posters

Cain, M. S. & Wendell, D. M. (2019, May). Extrapolation of concealed ensemble motion. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Alzahabi, R., Hussey, E. K., Cain, M. S., & Ward, N. (2019, May). The influence of context representations on cognitive control states. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S. & Wendell, D. M. (2018, November). Human perception and prediction of robot swarm motion. Human-Machine Collaboration for National Security Workshop, Lincoln, MA.

Cain, M. S., Cain, S. S., & Wendell, D. M. (2018, May). Ensemble perception of centers of inferred shapes vs. centers of item positions. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, S. S. & Cain, M. S. (2018, May). A Texture Representation Account of Ensemble Perception. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Muñoz-García, A., Cain, M. S., Wolfe, J. M., & Gil-Gómez de Liaño, B. (2018, May). Hybrid Foraging Performance is Related to Fluid Intelligence. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Quirós-Godoy, M., Pérez-Hernández, E., Cain, M. S., Wolfe, J. M., & Gil-Gómez de Liaño, B. (2018, May). Individual Differences in Visual Search and Foraging in children. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Gil-Gómez de Liaño, B., Quirós-Godoy, M., Pérez- Hernández, E., Cain, M. S., & Wolfe, J. M. (2018, May). Understanding Visual Search and Foraging in Cognitive Development. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., Dunsmoor, J. E., LaBar, K. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2017, May). Trait Anxiety is associated with increased multiple-target visual search errors. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., & Wolfe, J. M. (2016, May). Precise Guided Search. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Alaoui Socé, A., Cain, M. S., & Wolfe, J. M. (2016, May). Fitting two target templates into the focus of attention in a hybrid foraging task. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., Josephs, E. L., & Wolfe, J. M. (2015, May). Keep on rolling: Visual search asymmetries in 3D scenes with motion-defined targets. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL. [PDF]

Josephs, E. L., Cain, M. S., Hidalgo-Sotelo, B., Cook, G. W., Chang, N. L., Ehinger, K. A., Oliva, A. & Wolfe, J. M. (2015, May). When is stereopsis useful in visual search? Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2015, May). An individual differences approach to multiple-target search errors: Errors correlate with attentional deficits. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL.

Cain, M. S., Boettcher, S. E. P., & Wolfe, J. M. (2014, May). When Does the Aardvark Move to the Next Anthill? Foraging search with moving targets. Vision Sciences Society, St. Pete Beach, FL. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Sato, S. D., Watanabe, T., & Sasaki, Y. (2013, May). Hemifield-specific offline learning of coherent motion detection. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [PDF]

Berard, A. V., Cain, M. S., Watanabe, T., & Sasaki, Y. (2013, May). Do video game players resist interference with perceptual learning by training on a new task? Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL.

Clark, K., Biggs, A. T., Darling, E. F., Cain, M. S., Jackson, T. H., Samei, E., Baker, J., & Mitroff, S. R. (2013, May). Visual expertise: Insights gained by comparing professional populations. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL.

Cain, M. S. & Mitroff, S. R. (2012, November). Found Targets are Powerful Distractors in Multiple-Target Search. Psychonomic Society, Minneapolis, MN. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Adamo, S. H., & Mitroff, S. R. (2012, May). What eye-tracking can tell us about multiple-target visual search. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [PDF]

Adamo, S. H., Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2012, May). Targets need their own personal space. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [Abstract]

Mitroff, S. R., Biggs, A. T., Cain, M. S., Darling, E. F., Clark, K., Adamo, S. H., & Dowd, E. W. (2012, May). Visual search at the airport: Testing TSA officers. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [Abstract]

Cain, M. S., Mitroff, S. R. (2011, November). Relationships between attentional traits and media multitasking behavior. Presented at Object Perception, Attention, and Memory, Seattle, WA. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Dunsmoor, J., LaBar, K., & Mitroff, S. R. (2011, May). Accuracy in dual-target visual search is hindered by anticipatory anxiety. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Dunsmoor, J., LaBar, K., & Mitroff, S. R. (2011, April). Anticipatory anxiety decreases accuracy in dual-target visual search. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Lincoln, NE.

Cain, M. S., Mitroff, S. R. (2010, November). Impact of media multitasking on attentional filtering and disengagement. Psychonomics Society, St. Louis, MO. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Mitroff, S. R. (2010, May). Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [PDF]

Cain, M. S., Landau, A. N., Prinzmetal, W., Robertson, L. C., & Shimamura, A. P. (2009). Attention processes in action video game players. Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL. [PDF]

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2008). Practiced induced asymmetric task-switching costs: comparing pre-experimental experience with within-experiment training. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC. [PDF]

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2008). Asymmetric Task Switching Coasts Generated by Task Practice. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, CA. [PDF]

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2007). Flanker and task switching conflict produce separable dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activations: a high resolution fMRI investigation. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA. [PDF]

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2006). Distinct sub-regions of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex subserve different types of conflict. Society for Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA. [PDF]

Cain, M. S. & Shimamura, A. P. (2006). Asymmetric Task Switching Effects in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, CA. [PDF]

Manoach, D. S., Cain M. S., Thakkar, K. N., Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J. S. (2005). An fMRI study of the inter-trial effects of antisaccades. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Polli, F. E., Cain M. S., Thakkar, K. N., Barton, J. J. S., Manoach, D. S. (2005). Intact task-induced deactivation but decreased performance evaluation during antisaccade errors in schizophrenia. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Thakkar, K. N., Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J. S., Cain M. S., Joseph, R. M., Hadjikhani, N., Manoach, D. S. (2005). Abnormal anterior cingulate activity during error processing in autism spectrum disorder. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J. S., Cain, M. S., & Manoach, D. S. (2004). Antisaccade errors are associated with activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and insula. Human Brain Mapping, Budapest, Hungary.

Manoach, D. S., Cain, M. S., Polli, F. E., & Barton, J. J. S. (2004). Saccadic inhibition and task-switching are associated with distinct spatiotemporal patterns of fMRI activation. Human Brain Mapping, Budapest, Hungary.

Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J. S., Cain, M. S., & Manoach, D. S. (2004). Saccadic errors associated with activation in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices. 12th Annual Research Day, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.